Charles is Physics Professor at the University of Durham. He teaches Optics and Econophysics. He is currently writing a book a (hopefully popular) science book on economics. His research expertise is experimental quantum optics which is less relevant but does shape his world view on questions of measurement and uncertainty in particular. His strengths are in data analysis and visualisation. Recent research for example has been published on Tax and Human Development the Evidence showing a high correlation between the inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) and Tax as percentage of GDP from the Heritage Foundation.