This is a paper from 2013 by Christine A. Desan of Harvard Law School, ‘Creation Stories: Myths About the Origins of Money’ which I have just discovered and in effect confirms that spend and tax was also around in the era of tally sticks.
She tells us that England after the Romans left:
According to historians of early money, the use of money broke down in Britain after the Roman army left and administrative connections ended.
In fact she suggests:
The conditions in England after the departure of Roman forces suggest the terrain on which we should look for money’s creation. For individuals, the circumstances sharply circumscribed trading. Production of wares moved to the household: ceramics were hand-made there; clothing was woven family by family.
This is a great indication of what happens when money use breaks down – don’t tell the Tory libertarians, but it is actually every man for himself. Money, it turns out is a co-operative concept.
Making money, a phenomenon almost impossible to explain if we limit our field of vision to individuated exchange, becomes easily comprehensible once we enlarge that lens to include the collective activity that links individuals and communities.
Money is created when a stakeholder [the term she uses for a ruler or chief] uses his or her singular location at the hub of a community to mark the disparate contributions of individuals in a common way.
Entailing value in a token allows a stakeholder to command resources with great effect. The stakeholder can “buy” what it needs when it needs them, paying in receipts that it takes back later. In effect, the stakeholder gains the capacity to spend and tax in money as it makes money. The point here is that a stakeholder greatly expands its capacity when it can mobilize resources as it chooses. Money, it will turn out, is an enormously effective mode of governing.
So here we have SPEND and TAX. In that order. In spending, the tax was implicit.
Indeed the whole basis of what is called money is the undertaking that when rulers get you to do something you know that the token they have given to you will be acceptable for what the rulers require in return, which we call tax, although then it may then have been homage, tithes or fees.
Once this token (I think we can assume that in this era it was usually tally sticks) was issued and acceptable by the ruler of the day it became exchangeable as money – because everyone in that community recognised it as of value.
…money is a method of representing and moving resources within a collective….
Our rent seeking friends turn out to be collectivists as well…