The FT has today, 11 February, an ‘opinion’ article by Ian Goldin, Professor of Globalisation and Development at the University of Oxford, giving five reasons why UBI is such a bad idea, which is a useful addition to the discussions we have had here on Progressive Pulse a while ago and on TaxResearch UK in the last few days. The FT’s objections were freely available but now seem to be closed off so I offer a summary of their objections together with the response.
The first is fairly easy to rebut
UBI is financially irresponsible,…would be unaffordable and lead to ballooning deficits.
Not of course when you realise that the UK has a sovereign currency, printed £435billion in Quantitative Easing without raising a penny in tax and doesn’t actually need to borrow.
The second objection is that
UBI will lead to higher inequality and poverty. It typically aims to replace existing unemployment and other benefits with a simple universal grant. [With] a generalised transfer to everyone, the amount that goes to the most deserving is lower. Billionaires get a little more.
There is no reason to presume that less than the desired amount goes to the less well off because the billionaires get their share too. It presumes that nobody pays any tax. As part of a UBI system the billionaire classes would need to pay tax on either wealth or income at a rate at least high enough to pay back any UBI income (and preferably more).
The third is
UBI will undermine social cohesion. Individuals gain not only income, but meaning, status, skills, networks and friendships through work. Delinking income and work, while rewarding people for staying at home, causes social decay. Crime, drugs, dysfunctional families and other socially destructive outcomes are more likely in places with high unemployment.
The idea that only paid work gives people meaning suggests a stay at home husband or wife has no meaning – and the increased possibility of this, which UBI would assist, is highly unlikely to increase the number of “dysfunctional families” or “undermine social cohesion”. Rather the reverse.
“Rewarding people for staying at home” is what the old age pension does. Yet personal experience suggests large numbers of OAP’s do voluntary work, interest themselves in both society and societies and sometimes have a part-time job as well. What this objection really seems to amount to is that the poor are too feckless to stay at home. A few may be of course – but then so too are some of the rich. Most people, given responsibilty, embrace it. When they are disparaged and downcast, depressed and demotivated they are doubtless reluctant. As Rutger Bregman, author of ‘Utopia for Realists’, says, if you assume people cannot be trusted then it will be self fulfilling. But there is unsurprisingly no scientific evidence that people are lazy.
UBI undermines incentives to participate. Stronger safety nets are vital. No decent society should tolerate dire poverty or starvation. But for those who are able, help should be designed to get individuals and families to participate; to help people overcome unemployment and find work, retrain, move cities. Wherever possible, safety nets should be a lifeline towards meaningful work and participation in society, not a guarantee of a lifetime of dependence.
This really is much the same territory as point three. The poor lack cash, not character. All the state-issued, tightly conditional payments just infantilise and humiliate the recipients – and often for no better reason than an accident of geography or that they have been no inheritance – or both.
UBI offers a panacea to corporate and political leaders, postponing an urgent discussion about the future of jobs.
I’m delighted the author seems to think UBI is on the current political agenda. He continues
There must be more part-time work, shorter weeks, and rewards for home work, creative industries and social and individual care. Forget about UBI; to reverse rising inequality and social dislocation we need to radically change the way we think about income and work.
And I think paying a UBI would do just that.